26 November 2008

Essay: The impact of the Industrial Revolution on Men's Tailoring

“Thus in the one pregnant subject of CLOTHES, rightly understood, is included all that men have thought, dreamed, done and been: the whole external universe and what it holds is but clothing; and the essence of ALL SCIENCE lies in the PHILOSOPHY OF CLOTHES”
- Thomas Carlyle, Selected Writings (London, 1971)

I have always felt that in order to appreciate one’s interest in a certain field, it is essential to know the history of that field in order to further one’s understanding of current and future developments. As such I decided to research and write this essay, hopefully continuing and leading on to further historical essays to share with everyone.

In our current global financial climate and the contemporary social repercussions of fashion, it may be prudent to look into and discuss the advent of ready-made clothing. It seems that one cannot help but read a newspaper or watch the television, without seeing or reading some sort of discussion regarding our throw away society and the effects of mass consumerism. As such looking at the advent of the mass production of clothing and its effects on the humble tailoring of menswear should prove interesting.

In our daily lives, the vast majority of us have become accustomed to certain conditions. The task of buying a shirt for instance is usually done by going to a store and trying on a garment that appeals to our aesthetic taste and specific price range. One simply seeks out the size required, whether this is by reading the labels of ‘small’ or ‘medium’, or the exact collar size in inches. Although many give no thought to this task, previous to the industrial revolution, this would have seemed an impossible, if not magical task. Ready-made clothing would have seemed uniquely modern to the nineteenth century consumer. Indeed, being able to purchase clothing with standardized measurements and construction essentially covered all the promises of the industrial revolution.

During the middle of the nineteenth century, the large manufacturing force of the relevant city made ready-made clothing in vast numbers. A previously unseen number of workers laboured, each completed their individual tasks in the process. A contractor known, as a ‘sweater’, would have overseen this workforce. The scale of production during this period is hard to ignore, indeed by 1850, ready-made clothing had taken its place among national leaders in terms of industrial employment, output and investment. However this relatively new practice had an immediate point of discussion for those involved: the relationship between the mass-produced garments and its opposite, the bespoke, made-to-measure pieces of the tailor.

One would no doubt be forgiven for thinking that it was in the ready-made factories that the major transformations of the industrial revolution took place, yet it was actually in the made-to-measure trade that this change would be seen. Historian Michael Zakim, writing for the Winterthur Portfolio in 1998, summed up this essential change, stating that it came in form of the “transition from a world of craft singularity, to market-inspired standardization”.

The impact of the industrialization on fashion production basically meant that the made-to-measure tailor was forced to compete with the factories. Ready-made clothing no doubt suited the new nationalised consumer base, and as such the tailors were forced to adapt to this change in the market, otherwise they would suffer. It must be pointed out at this stage however, that the adaptation of the tailors did not mean that they sold out to the standardisation of the factories. Indeed, it was far from it, they still managed in parts to provide a unique voice to the male consumer in the mass, predictability of the newly emerging industrial production.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, this made-to-measure market was known as the ‘custom’ trade. In this sense, custom referred to the customer, so it was here a consumer based market, rather than the industrial merchants dictating what was to be made. One must remember that in the pre-industrial era, custom clothing was not necessarily the way of life. It was quite the contrary in fact, clothing was handed down in families or by means of a will, and the receiving party would then go on to adapt the garments and have them altered for personal use. As such much of the clothing tended to be garments that been altered a number of times over their lifespan, having been handed down from owner to owner.

The industrial revolution did not create the distinction between classes, via which party wore custom and which party wore ready-made, the difference between the bourgeois and the proletarian. Rather the industrial revolution merely cemented the divide. Ready-made clothing was seen as being sloppily made factory pieces; factories which were run by merchants (known as ‘clothiers’), who actually had no personal experience in making garments. Therefore the custom suit was seen as the polar opposite, a lovingly made and carefully measured product of the master tailor, the clothing of the propertied classes. It was essentially seen as the antithesis of the mass-produced garment, a far cry from the personal touches of the custom made. Indeed this opposition can even be seen in the business directories of New York from this period, in which the listings for men’s clothing was under two sections, the clothiers’ “warehouses” and tailors’ “establishments”.

One example of the social impact of this distinction can be seen in the history of shirt makers, Brooks Brothers. In 1918, the company celebrated their centenary and in this privately printed history, they actually reinvented the founder Henry as a tailor. In actuality neither Henry nor his sons, who changed the name of the firm to Brooks Brothers in 1850, were tailors. They were rather, clothiers, people who employed others to make clothing. However the prestige from staking their origins as tailors appealed to the upper classes and gained them a status that would have otherwise been elusive to them. This example no doubt shows the social importance of the time for the tailor over the factory in the fashion industry.

It would seem that this divisive gap between the custom and ready-made would also make its mark in the form of garment pricing. Interestingly however, this was far from the case. The advent of ready-mades meant that the tailor was now sharing the menswear market, meaning they would also have to compete on the financial level. Indeed, one can see this competition in action when looking at the newspaper advertisements of the times. In the 2nd June 1844 edition of the New York Herald, the tailor Edward Fox, took out a piece saying that his garments were made from the highest quality English and French cloths and constructed by “none but the best cutters and workmen”. He stated that he sought to counter “the impression that has heretofore existed in the minds of many, that purchasers in Broadway are obliged to pay an exorbitant price for any article of dress”. These tailors would make custom clothing, but also had to compete with clearance sales, quick production times, accessories and even selling a few ready-mades of their own.

The New York Tribune heralded the arrival of this new sartorial era in 1854, pointing to the new price structure of the custom tailors. The Tribune went on to attribute this change to the transformation in the industry, the competition with factories and the discovery of the giant market that could be reached with reduced prices. Indeed the tailor William Jennings was quick to quip that this was “the system of small profits and quick returns”. Historian Michael Zakim is quick to point out that another contextual condition could also have had an impact, that of the depressed economy of America in the 1840s, leading to tailors having to reduce prices anyhow.

What the reduced prices of the tailor actually did in those early years was bring an otherwise exclusive cultural good to the masses, no doubt similar to the advent of the penny press or cheaper admission to theatres. Similar to these other cultural goods however, there was also the lucrative chance of high profits for the custom tailor. The advent of ready-made clothing and the changes in economy meant that the tailor was forced into doing business by cash rather than credit.

Cash was a far easier way of working for the tailor; it meant fewer accounts, fewer debtors and fewer loses at the end of the year. It was seen as the safest method of business, especially following the panic of 1837, which saw businesses fail due to unpaid debts as a result of credit purchases. Essentially what the tailors did was to reduce prices in order to appeal to a wider consumer base. A cash business also helped, as with the wider clientele, they no longer needed to spend time in fostering good relationships with consumers. Before they would need to gain this good relationship, as the prices were high, meaning that they needed clients who could be trusted with credit purchases, as cash was not feasible. The reducing of prices helped their market, and indeed the market proved to be far more elastic than had previously been thought. These lower prices were not however spread on an individual basis, rather the tailors took to bidding wars along with the factories in the newspapers and billing lists.

The change in pricing by the tailors did however have to be rationalised. Just like the clothiers in charge of the factories, the tailors had to see to, that production was efficient and that their rights were safe. The main area of concern was that of rights over design, the tailors did not want their employees making money from their property, when the market was already saturated with competition. This concern was soon publicly aired with a number of strikes, protests and trails. These were not however in the factories, rather sourced from the top tailoring establishments. As such industrial change was to be most contested in the custom, not ready-made, arena.

The reason that proprietary rights over designs were so debated over in the tailoring establishments was that these were what the business was built on. The menswear industry of the nineteenth century was based on the fastidious issue of fit. The success of a tailor was based on the quality of his fit, which essentially set him apart from the ready-mades. A business would build its name on its fit and the guarantee of this. Given the importance of this area therefore, it is no surprise that the cutters were one of the most highly paid and skilled workers in the tailors’ establishment. The skill of the cutter was what helped create and guarantee the fit of a garment.

The friction between the need for a guaranteed fit and competitive production times was to be eased by the invention of the drafting systems. Drafting systems were first published in the US in the 1820s. Their numbers were to slowly increase, and reached the main stage by the 1840s. These drafting systems allowed one the easiest way to measure a client and translate this to cloth and a well fitting garment. Each system aimed to achieve the best individual fit on a consistent basis, whilst in each also catering for the maximum number of varied clientele, as the tailor would meet on a daily basis. These drafting systems therefore, emphasised a numerical exactitude over the previously held personal judgement of the individual tailor.

What these systems transformed the art of tailoring into was a craft of numbers and soon the standardised unit of measure. The inch tape measure was actually introduced into tailoring in 1820, although tailors had previously used notched strips of paper. Before the tailor had kept their own individual patterns, which they had developed over a number of years. Each pattern was unique to its tailor, and although the tailor might sell one or pass it on to an apprentice, they were closely guarded secrets and the basis of their reputation, for indeed the pattern determined fit. During this time there were no standardised units of measurement in tailoring. Rather each tailor would use a strip of paper and mark the measurements of a client on them, and use their bank of client measurements to create various standard patterns for their own personal use.

The drafting systems also allowed each user the luxury of having to make far fewer measurements. As each system was based on their own particular method of proportionality, the tailor only needed to take a few measurements, rather than a number of them. As such this also enabled quicker production, especially for clients unable to come in for fitting sessions and those who were in a hurry. This period saw a number of patented drafting systems, which all promised to give the best fit for the least number of measurement. They promised by the wonders of proportionality, based on their own bank of client measurements, to cater for the maximum number of clients.

Standardised measurements therefore had a huge impact on the tailoring system. With the sale of drafting systems it became essential to have universal measurements for tailors to use for the formulaic equations for fit to work. Essentially what the system allowed was for tailors and businessmen to make money by selling their patterns and fit calculations. These trade secrets were now a way of making money. However they also helped the industry vastly in terms of production. The standardised units of measure and sale of drafting systems meant that it was now far easier to train and teach an employee to craft an article of clothing. This meant that one could now hire help far more easily, making the markers for profit even higher.

One notices that the sale of drafting systems and fashion patterns was actually the efforts of custom tailors to profit from the nationalising of the fashion market. They were responding to the consumer base on which the ready-made industry was based, therefore expanding their own base and tackling the competition. Indeed the effect of this nationalising market can be seen in advertising circulars of the time, in which diagrams for patterns and drafting systems were printed. They allowed those living away from the city to use the trend of those cities through the relevant drafting systems. Thus the advent of drafting systems was a social event, because it allowed a wider base of consumer to purchase the exclusive designs of the master tailors.

One therefore sees that the impact of the industrial revolution on menswear tailoring was to widen the consumer base for this exclusive cultural good. The tailor now had to compete with the low prices of the factories producing ready-made garments. In an effort to reduce prices the tailors were led to make profits from their fitting systems and patterns. By making these systems public, the tailor could train employees far more easily, making it cheaper to hire a number of workers, thereby increasing production numbers. The introduction of standardised units of measurement also helped to nationalise the market and make it easier to expand the business. Of course whilst it is easy to say that in a vacuum this meant that the status symbol inherent in the custom suit was now reduced, this was not the case in many instances. Indeed the US government for example was so scared of the masses encroaching on this highly regarded symbol of male civic identity, they introduced taxation that meant it was cheaper for factories to import ready-mades than tailors to import raw cloth. The social and financial impact of the industrial revolution can therefore be seen in the menswear industry to have had a great effect. Indeed they were to help pioneer the mass produced marketing and sales tactics and methods of today.

Selected Bibliography:

Alexander D., Retailing in England During the Industrial Revolution (London, 1970)

Carlyle T., Selected Writings (London, 1971)

Coutes J., A Practical Guide for the Tailor’s Cutting Room (London: Blackie and Son, n.d.)

Lermie B., ‘Redressing the History of the Clothing Trade in England’ in Dress 21 (1994)

Seltzer M., Bodies and Machines (New York: Routledge, 1992)

Whittock N., The Complete Book of Trades (London: John Bennett, 1837)

Zakim M., ‘Customizing the Industrial Revolution: The Reinvention of Tailoring in the Nineteenth Century’ in Winterthur Portfolio, Vol 33 (1998)

Would those wishing to use any part of this essay please email first - thanks.


  1. 'craft' is such a simple word...yet so very complex indeed. Great post & info...knowledge is power ;)

  2. Really awesome post. You're so thorough! I agree with one of your first comments too, that to really appreciate a topic it is nice to understand the history. The two go hand in hand, but people so often neglect their history...

  3. That was so indepth to the T. Oh, you really did some research. Still, here in the states..I think it was the penny readers and magazines that really propelled fashion especially, just after the Civil War. Oddly, I didn't get this until I read Kansas City Charlie a few years ago about the youngest person to be hung in the state of Kansas.

  4. Really interesting topic, and well written essay

  5. Incredibly well written. Such a great read. I've no doubt you will do well in this essay!

  6. Wow, very in depth and well written! Fascinating stuff too... I wonder how the custom/tailor made system is working in today's economy...

  7. craft is very versatile
    well written, engaging
    also I like the new header in technicolor hehe

  8. wow this is the most i've learned from a blog post :)

    great essay! and great songs!

  9. I forgot to mention how much I love the new header.

    Wow, and to think what you've written is basically what got the consumers to want to have that store bought quality material. Amazing. And now here we are on the brink of everything falling apart with our economy..especially, here in the states. I suppose Wal-mart will save us..haha.

  10. Beautifully written ... I've always been interested in learning more history of fashion.In Toronto, they had a wonderful exhibition on evolution of clothe making - it was fantastic to see the progression.

  11. HI Dapper, what a wonderful post. I am fascinated with craft and artisans and when I lived in Italy I was so totally drawn to their bottegas and workrooms. Great post. Carla

  12. Me.Speachless. You.brilliant

    Thank you for another great post. This made my day!

  13. DK, I'm loving the techni colours.

    Are you doing anything with these essays? I mean these are too good to just get hidden in the blog!

  14. I feel so much more intelligent after reading just snippets of this. Is this essay for school or merely for the Dapper Kid collection?
    <3 (Encyclo)lydia

  15. Dapper, I did try to read your essay and I was going to make an honest, meaningful comment, but.. it was so bloody long to read! I did stop at the two pictures though. honest.

  16. hello darling.this is brilliant and indepth.I like how your article really shows the evolution of garment production and how this affected a variety of things. I think there are advantages to both the mass made factory clothing and bespoke garments.I also like how both industries inter-relate.
    Kudos on the excellent article and blog piece.
    youve been awarded an award,check my blog for details.

  17. Thanks for being my teacher today, DK. There's so much to learn. I appreciate all the effort you put into the essay.

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  19. What a fantastic blog! I loved it very much!

  20. It might be a surprise to you but I still have all my clothes tailored haha. From shirts to trousers to suits haha.


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